The Impossible State Islam Politics and Modernity's Moral

The Impossible State Islam Politics and Modernity's Moral Predicament [Reading] ➻ The Impossible State Islam Politics and Modernity's Moral Predicament By Wael B. Hallaq – Natus-physiotherapy.co.uk صدرت عن المركز العربي للأبحاث ودراسة السياسات ضمن سلسلة ترجمان الترجمة العربية لكتاب الدولة المستحيلة الإسل صدرت عن State Islam Kindle Ð المركز العربي للأبحاث ودراسة السياسات ضمن سلسلة ترجمان الترجمة العربية لكتاب الدولة المستحيلة الإسلام والسياسة ومأزق الحداثة الأخلاقي صفحة، من القطع الكبير، لأستاذ الدراسات الإسلامية وائل حلاق، وترجمة عمرو عثمان تتمثّل أطروحة الكتاب الرئيسة في أنّ مفهوم الدولة الإسلامية مستحيل التحقّق The Impossible MOBI :Ê وينطوي على تناقض داخلي؛ وذلك بحسب أيّ تعريف سائد لما تمثّله الدولة الحديثةوردَ الكتاب في سبعة فصول؛ يتناول الفصل الأوّل مقدمات وصف الحكم الإسلامي النموذجي، ويرسم حدود مفهوم النموذج كما سيجري استخدامه بوصفه مفهومًا مركزيًّا في أطروحة الكتاب الكلّية ويصف الفصل الثاني الدولة الحديثة، الدولة Impossible State Islam Epub à الحديثة النموذجية، ويحدّد خصائص الشكل التي تمثّل الصفات الجوهرية للدولة الحديثة ويقوم بتفكيك تلك الخصائص، معترفًا في الوقت Impossible State Islam Politics and ePUB í عينه بالتغيرات المتزامنة والتنوّعات المتلاحقة في تكوين تلك الدولةأمّا الفصل الثالث الفصل بين السلطات حكم القانون أم حكم الدولة، فيناقش مفاهيم الإرادة السيادية وحكم القانون في ما Impossible State Islam Politics and ePUB í يخصّ مبدأ الفصل بين السلطات؛ هادفًا من وراء هذه المناقشة إلى استعراض الأطر والبنى الدستورية لكلٍّ من الدولة الحديثة والحكم الإسلامي، وتسليط الضوء على الاختلافات الدستورية بين نظامَي الحكم هذين واعتمادًا على هذه الاختلافات، يستكشف الفصل الرابع القانوني والسياسي والأخلاقي، معنى القانون وعلاقته بالأخلاق ويؤكّد هذا العرض الفلسفي أساسًا الاختلافات النوعية بين المفهوم الأخلاقي للدولة الحديثة والحكم الإسلامي وسيتحوّل هذا العرض في الجزء الثاني من الفصل الرابع إلى عرضٍ ذي طابع سياسي وستتعزّز هذه التباينات القانونية الأخلاقية بفعل التباينات السياسية كاشفةً عن مجالٍ آخر من عدم التوافق بين الدولة الحديثة والشريعةويرى الفصل الخامس الذات السياسية والتقنيات الأخلاقية لدى الذات أنّ الدولة القومية الحديثة والحكم الإسلامي يميلان إلى إنتاج مجالين مختلفين من تكوين الذاتية، وأنّ الذوات التي ينتجها هذان المجالان النموذجيان تتباين تباينًا كبيرًا، الأمر الذي يولّد نوعين مختلفين من التصورات الأخلاقية والسياسية والمعرفية والنفسية والاجتماعية للعالم وتلك الاختلافات العميقة بين أفراد الدولة القومية الحديثة ونظرائهم في الحكم الإسلامي إنّما تمثّل التجليات المجهرية المصغّرة للاختلافات الكونية المادية والبنيوية والدستورية، وكذلك الفلسفية والفكريةويحاجج الفصل السادس عولمة تضرب حصارها واقتصاد أخلاقي في أنّ الأشكال الحديثة للعولمة ووضع الدولة في هذه الأشكال المتعاظمة القوّة، يكفيان لجعل أيّ صورة من الحكم الإسلامي إمّا أمرًا مستحيل التحقّق، وإمّا غير قابل للاستمرار على المدى البعيد هذا إذا أمكن قيامه أصلًا وبعبارة أخرى، يصل المؤلف إلى نتيجة مفادها إذا جرى أخذ كلّ العوامل في الحسبان، فإنّ الحكم الإسلامي لا يستطيع الاستمرار نظرًا للظروف السائدة في العالم الحديثويختم الكاتب بالفصل السابع النطاق المركزي للأخلاقي، متفحّصًا مآزق أخلاقية حديثة مع الإشارة إلى أسسها المعرفية والبنيوية بصفتها تؤسّس لأصل الأزمات الأخلاقية التي واجهتها الحداثة في كلّ صورها الشرقية والغربية ويرى المؤلف أنّ استحالة فكرة الحكم الإسلامي ناتجة بصورة مباشرة من غياب بيئة أخلاقية مواتية تستطيع أن تلبّي أدنى معايير ذلك الحكم وتوقعاته، ويرى أنّ هذه الاستحالة هي تجلٍّ آخر لعدة مشاكل أخرى ليس أقلّها شأنًا الانهيار المطّرد للوحدات الاجتماعية العضوية ونشأة أنماط اقتصادية استبدادية، إضافةً إلى ما هو أكثر أهمية من ذلك، وهو الدمار الشامل للموائل الطبيعية والبيئة لا يهدف هذا الكتاب كما يصرّح مؤلفه إلى إصابة القارئ المسلم والعربي بالإحباط واليأس من عدم قدرته على الفكاك من ورطة الحداثة التي وجد نفسه فيها بلا اختيار منه، ومن استحالة قيام دولة إسلامية تحافظ على خصوصيته الأخلاقية والتاريخية، وإنّما غايته هي توفير سبيل للمسلمين إلى الحياة الحسنة المستندة إلى موارد تاريخ الإسلام الأخلاقية، وهو يثبت في هذا السياق، أنّ أزمات الإسلام السياسية وغيرها ليست بالفريدة أو الخاصة، بل هي جزء لا يتجزّأ من العالم الحديث، في الغرب كما في الشرقموقع المركز العربي للأبحاث ودراسة السياسات.


10 thoughts on “The Impossible State Islam Politics and Modernity's Moral Predicament

  1. Trish Trish says:

    Halla’s book published in 2012 and frankly it is not a book so much to be read as to be studied It is the first time I have encountered a rational discussion of Shari’a law and a discussion of the philosophical underpinnings of the notion of an Islamic state Halla’s premise is that the term “Islamic state” is “both an impossibility and a contradiction in terms” This slim volume appears to use Western philosophical and political thought to structure an argument about Shari’a law and Islamic governanceMy lack of background in the philosophical underpinnings of western political thought greatly hampered much understanding about Halla’s argument but he begins with an attempt to identify what makes a “state” He posits that a state must a priori be coercive to represent sovereign will saying “If sovereign will is a historically produced phenomenon and if its expression is the lawthen the modern state is the embodiment of the law Halle goes to say “There never was an Islamic state” and discusses governance in Islamic societiesI caught up with his thinking when he discusses the corrosive effects of globalization in Chapter 6 Globalization is being reexamined in western societies as well for we are discovering its unintended effects are not uite as imagined Halla suggests that globalization is causing states to lose control of their internal economic social and cultural conditions and we all subsume our sovereignty to the corporation Apart from any judgment about the merits or demerits of globalization ua globalization a driving force of globalization has undoubtedly been the corporation Thus it is reasonable to assess globalization by one of its dominant features ie its corporate ethic which has received and continues to receive the endorsement of the stateThe corporation is created by law for one purpose to increase its wealth and to prioritize this purpose above all others including social responsibility which when it exists at all is placed in the service of generating even profit Corporate charity and social responsibility thus become strategies to increase profits and hence the economic size of the corporation This is precisely why corporation based globalization cannot view with the state because the state has developed the means of addressing however minimally the human needs of its own citizens The corporation has by contrast not only failed to do the same; it has also been notorious in its inhumane and exploitative practices destroying the lives of people so called externalities as consumers of their products as victims of chemical and oil spillages as abused laborers in their sweatshops and as inhabitants of a planet being slowly but assuredly destroyed by their callow industrial practicesHalla sure to find many who agree with this critiue goes on to discuss Islamic moral economy in the context of globalization and the role of corporationsIn the final chapter Halla suggests that a state and Islamic law are incompatible because Islamic governance cannot permit a sovereign will other than that of God “The duty of the state fulfilled maximally and most faithfully through the education and nationalistic discourse—among much else—is to create the efficient and productive citizen the subject of “law and order” who is willing to die for his country and nation Whereas Islamdoes not command sacrifice of life even for the sake of God the modern nation state is inconceivable without this reuirement” It is a rousing discussion for those well versed in political theory This book won the Columbia University’s Distinguished Book Award in September 2015 and has been translated into many languages including Arabic Hebrew Indonesian Persian Turkish among others In 2009 Halla was named one of the 500 most influential Muslims in the world “despite his non Muslim background” Wikipedia


  2. Murtaza Murtaza says:

    The nation state is a specific product of Euro American history and political thought While many in the modern world take its existence for granted or view it as a neutral form of political organization the fact is that the state is a contingent phenomenon with its own specific metaphysics While many Muslims and not just the extremists have expressed the desire for an Islamic state that will provide them safety dignity and freedom from oppression; the fact is that Islamic and state are contradictions in terms Halla lays out a few of the main reasons why such a state is logically impossible This is not to say that a political entity governed by paradigmatic Islamic beliefs is impossible indeed many have existed in history but a state in the modern sense is completely antithetical to Islam or to any morally grounded tradition at allFirstly in a state sovereignty theoretically resides in something called the popular will In practice states end up being governed by bureaucratic functionaries or by the will of organized elites but philosophically they are presumed to be an expression of the will of the people that they govern This is true even for undemocratic states which nonetheless claim to represent the nation that they rule The goal of the state becomes purely to increase the power of the nation it represents But by virtue of being divorced from any other transcendent purpose the nation state ends up becoming an end unto itself existing for no teleological purpose other than its own continued perpetuation In this way the state becomes a kind of modern god simultaneously transcendent and immanent in the world immortal and holding the power of life and death over its subjects It should be very obvious why such a polity can never be reconciled with Islam unless it is altered so much that it ceases to be a state altogetherThe modern state is also by its nature positivistic Its practical concerns are accordingly centered on acuiring power and manipulating the natural environment This positivism has no room for moral constraint which is what would have to exist in a genuinely Islamic state It is difficult to imagine any modern state foregoing say a dam building project because the budget is tied up with mandatory two percent Zakat payments that are an inalienable right of the poor under Islam States by their nature are obsessed with their own survival and perpetuation and have little time for any irrational constraint However under Islam or any other moral tradition the goal of society is to cultivate human morality and adhere to the strictures of the divine In this way sovereignty can rest only with the divine not with the popular will or any statist embodiment of it This is another apparently insoluble problem for the state as presently understoodFurther a state by its nature reuires a bureaucratic apparatus to function an apparatus whose natural workings must inevitably culturally penetrate society and constantly remake it in a new image A state needs soldiers teachers and engineers etc that can operate along its positivistic logic But importantly a state cannot tolerate true social independence in any of these fields nor can it tolerate powerful and independent sub state institutions The existence of an independent law making body such as the traditional ulema or traditional family or clan networks is completely anathema to the bureaucratizing logic necessary for a modern state As such these must be destroyed for the state to truly attain control over the society is governs Paradigmatic Islamic governance was very different from this Whereas state intervention in society is the norm today in traditional Islamic polities it was the exception Instead of the state legislating in a top down manner the government of such polities was in many ways constrained by the strictures of a law that developed organically from the bottom up which it could often not control Needless to say no modern state could tolerate such a circumstance nor would it be a state if it did The traditional institutions of the Sharia were irrecoverably destroyed during colonialism after they were correctly identified by the colonists as an impediment to the bureaucratization and economic subjugation of Muslim societies While its moral force remains and is a source of nostalgia for many the practical reality of the Sharia has been killed with no chance of reviving it in the form that it had once existedHalla who is not a Muslim is perhaps the world's leading scholar on the Sharia Like many Muslim Marxist and Christian philosophers he is deeply concerned about the amoral nature of modern governance in particular the Project of Destruction which its disenchanted metaphysics are in the process of inflicting on the planet As he sees it the traditional worldview of Islam is one in which every part of the world is imbued with value There is no dead physical matter for our manipulation that is separate from moral concerns nor is there a division between categories like the moral the legal or the political All these categories are necessarily merged into one as is necessary for true flourishing on this planet By its nature a state disenchants the world Halla argues By approaching the world in a positivistic manner and through its technologies of governance a state cannot help but be amoral and by its nature it will manufacture a national community that is similarly amoral trapped in Weber's iron cage of bureaucratic rationality There is no path out of this problem through the nation state which has been among the most powerful vehicles for disenchantment in the first placeHalla's argument is a worthwhile rejoinder to Islamists many of whom have become so obsessed with the state that they have effectively begun worshipping it as a god itself Their project is a contradiction in terms and ends up emulating the worst aspects of the same Western modernity that it claims to reject Creating a truly moral or Islamic form of governance is going to take a lot work and creativity than simply Islamizing the language around the same oppressive state structures that prevail today Halla is undeniably brilliant but my one complaint with him is his incredibly dense and academic writing style One needs to have a considerable level familiarity with the Western and Islamic philosophers he references to appreciate this book as well as a degree of tolerance for his very obtuse academic writing Despite his protestations in the introduction he doesn't really try and make his writing accessible to the general public But despite these minor complaints I would class this as a necessary read for those interested in issues of political Islam The ending of the book hints at possible ways out of our present dilemma but such difficult uestions will have to wait for subseuent writings to be answered


  3. Haris Haris says:

    Philosophical critical moral and brilliant Wael Halla's The Impossible State is in one word epic An essential read for everyone Muslim or not religious or otherwise whether you care about anything or nothing or just post apocalyptic Twinkies so much so that no discussion about well anything really can be absent of at the very least a recognition of the arguments put forth in Halla's latest book whether you agree with him or not Modernity's moral predicament as Halla calls it penetrates to the core of everything we do we are we inhabit we sense politically socially psychologically Kinda like Ubik #philipKdick #okNoOneActuallyGotThatReferenceDidThey?The Impossible State is about much than Islamic law or Sharia that's a cool topic too but this is not a history book or a work on a singular vein of legal thought Rather Halla uestions the very bases upon which we live our lives and govern ourselves Drawing on a wide range of sources from Hobbes to Kant to Nietzsche to Foucault to Stiglitz to al Ghazali to Asad to Abu El Haj The Impossible State is really about the underlying structure weltanschauung upon which our society economy and politic operates Halla demonstrates that morality and its absence is not some vague phantasmal force but a very real epistemic and systemic source which manifests itself deeply and interdependently throughout our philosophy psychology science society economics and politics The problems Islam and Muslims face today are everyone's problems and they are not timeless Halla takes apart our Western modern conceptions of society and politics right down to the Enlightenment itself The state and its structures Halla argues should not be taken as a timeless given but instead as markers of a very young modern era in which economic political and narcissistic attitudes than justice and social harmony persist as an integral part of our social and political structureFor anyone concerned at all with the world's continuing problems of violence and injustice this is a necessary read For anyone taking Columbia's Core Curriculum or something similar this is the perfect supplement or necessary ingredient to your so called liberal education haha For anyone interested in law politics and social theory this is a must For anyone studying the Arab Spring Islamic lawSharia or interested in the application of Sharia today you cannot miss this book Everyone needs to read The Impossible State but although Halla says in the Intro that The Impossible State is for the common reader be forewarned it is academic It's a dense read most of it consists of socialpoliticallegal theory based on a wide range of comparative research and it reuires at least a cursory understanding of Enlightenment and post Enlightenment thinkers and their critics and a little bit of Islamic legal history he tries to catch you upHalla rips apart the modern structures some of us may take for granted like Jack Nicholson turned Wolf eats deer #Wolf #okNoOneGotThatEither? and for some this can be jarring If at first you disagree with him that's awesome but before answering your own uestions about his work first uestion why you are uestioning yourself Upon what assumptions paradigms do you do so?Rated R for academic violence intellectually bloody Enlightenment bashing and disturbing suggestions that our world today is so marvelously screwed in the head


  4. lkh0ja lkh0ja says:

    The uestion of whether an Islamic state can exist and what it would look like is one that has been asked a lot recently Hell I've asked it a lot myself and wondered it especially in light of the political upheaval in a few of the Arab states Wael Halla breaks it down really well he basically deconstructs the underpinnings of the modern state and the conditions necessary to have a 'successful' Islamic state as outlined by various texts that deal with Islamic jurisprudence while taking into account the current economic political world system globalization the impact of colonization and post colonial struggles to conclude that as the modern state is today an Islamic state would be unable to exist because as outlined an Islamic state which draws its legitimacy from morality as outlined by the u'ran and as interpreted and reinterpreted through ijtihad and strives to create citizens of good in a system where sovereignty is drawn from the economic political and strives to create citizens of efficiency and productivity Basically an Islamic state would constantly have to change because the other actors that it deals with are not Islamic states and it would have to play by their rules so to speak However he does not say that a modern state can never be an Islamic state because he does not bar the fact that the modern state may evolve and adaptI found it to be a dense read however extremely enlightening I plan on re reading it soon as I did have some trouble with some of the topics


  5. Walaa Walaa says:

    مناقشة الكتاب للدكتورة هبة رؤوف عزت


  6. Dj Deutch Dj Deutch says:

    Much Broader than the title might suggestIn the time of ISIS the reformation of the Saudi state and the perpetual ‘war on terror uestions of Islamic governance are ever present yet clouded in the spectre of violent extremism Though as is often argued this form of violent extremism has always had its partners in Western Thought Though not mentioned here anarchist thinking most screams out to me Nonetheless this book represents a thorough and well referenced analysis of the modern state its ills and why the Sharia represents an opposite Some points are tedious as I was never truly convinced by a radical difference between the Sultanate and the modern executive they occupy a rather minor role in the overall argument The thrust of the work is that the moral is something which has been abandoned in the positivist enterprise of the modern state The State as a locus of economic and political relations is but an entity of order and domination which asserts positivist truths as a means to achieving such ends Halla’s analysis of Sharia for me points to what is distinctly lacking in modernity and looks to alternate ways of being to see how we can reclaim it Overall it is an incredible piece of academia and moral philosophy I recommend it for anyone who has ever felt the modern world to be insufficient yet are not seeking deeper metaphysical truths in anything but a simple desire for morality and community


  7. Derek Ide Derek Ide says:

    Should be 35 stars when will goodreads institute half stars? in large part because of the weak analysis presented in the sort of Where do we go from here? ending Fuller review coming sometime in the future


  8. Phoenix Phoenix says:

    False PositivesI uite enjoyed one of Halla's previous books The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law and was looking forward to this his most recent offering Whereas the former was highly informative and descriptive the prescriptive approach taken here uickly loses its academic appeal and evolves into an uninteresting invitation dawa to embrace an Islamic lifestyleHalla's premise is that the Western notion of a State based on representative democracy is incompatible with the traditional norms of Islamic governance Democracy is based on human law not God's law and is therefore amoral He begins well enough with a brief summary of various philosophical views of the state summarizing Hegel Hobbes Weber Marx Kelson Gramsci and Foucault pp20 but makes the mistake of settling on the formulations of Carl Schmidt as representative of the West Schmidt was a central and primary Nazi philosopher It goes downhill from thereAside from the use of Schmidt's paradigms Halla will contradicts himself even in the space of a few paragraphs For example on pp93 he claims that Islam never knew the concept of conscription yet in the next paragraph he describes how Jannisaries were purchased or snatched from Christian families and then raised as Muslims On pp 104 he criticizes as indoctrination the use of education is to create good citizens and pp108 states that this means that the state exists to propagate itself yet on page 112 he argues that Sharia is the path to a good life its purpose is our raison d'etre there's no difference The ills of the West include colonialism and globalization however the aim in Islam is to colonize Dar al Harb territories so that non Muslims accept the moral precepts of Shari'a pp49 He also believes that the overlapping responsibilities in a Westernized state between political judicial and bureaucratic agencies is a major flaw by referencing in an unclear fashion the arbitrariness of government agencies In doing so he misunderstands that the conflicts created by checks and balances are our strength This from a professor who's spent most of his teaching life in Canada and the USBy the end of the book he has concluded that the value of an individual is derived from their piety pp50 that the purpose of citizenship is to create a moral community pp140 and that education in science and the humanities should be constrained by the Sharia and that the Enlightenment uoting Enlightenment's Wake John Gray represented by the drive for emancipation through the growth of knowledge must be abandoned pp170IMV it's just not that well argued Halla offers a romantic mysticized and indistinct view of an unrealized Islamic past against a caricature of the present Interesting to some extent but so is a train wreck Like most utopian fantasies not an appealing society except for those who share the author's beliefs and values For a well written contrast see Tarek Fatah's


  9. Adam J Adam J says:

    Interesting concept of a book but it is from an orientalist point of view and the way that Halla writes makes it very difficult for the average reader to truly comprehend As another reviewer aptly stated; this book isn't read but rather studied This is a book that reuires the reader to take notes while reading in order to understand


  10. Mauricio Amar Mauricio Amar says:

    A very interesting theory about the actuality of Islam as a moral and practical way of life


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