Beyond Zero and One: Machines, Psychedelics, and


Beyond Zero and One: Machines, Psychedelics, and Consciousness [Reading] ➷ Beyond Zero and One: Machines, Psychedelics, and Consciousness By Andrew Smart – Natus-physiotherapy.co.uk Can we build a robot that trips on acid This is not a frivolous question, according to neuroscientist Andrew Smart If we can t, he argues, we haven t really created artificial intelligenceIn an exposi Can we and One: ePUB ¹ build a robot that trips on acid This is not a frivolous question, according to neuroscientist Andrew Smart If we can t, he argues, we haven t really created artificial intelligenceIn an exposition reminiscent of crossover works such as G del, Escher, Bach and Fermat s Last Theorem, Andrew Smart Beyond Zero Kindle - weaves together Mangarevan binary numbers, the discovery of LSD, Leibniz, computer programming, and much to connect the vast but largely forgotten world of psychedelic research with the resurgent field of AI and the attempt to build conscious robots A book that draws on the history of mathematics, philosophy, and digital technology, Beyond Zero Zero and One: ePUB ☆ and One challenges fundamental assumptions underlying artificial intelligence Is the human brain based on computation Can information alone explain human consciousness and intelligence Smart convincingly makes the case that true intelligence, and artificial intelligence, requires an appreciation of what is beyond the computational.

    Download Book Best Sellers in PDF format that draws on the history of mathematics, philosophy, and digital technology, Beyond Zero Zero and One: ePUB ☆ and One challenges fundamental assumptions underlying artificial intelligence Is the human brain based on computation Can information alone explain human consciousness and intelligence Smart convincingly makes the case that true intelligence, and artificial intelligence, requires an appreciation of what is beyond the computational."/>
  • Paperback
  • 268 pages
  • Beyond Zero and One: Machines, Psychedelics, and Consciousness
  • Andrew Smart
  • English
  • 05 October 2019

About the Author: Andrew Smart

Andrew Smart and One: ePUB ¹ is the author of Autopilot The Art and Science of Doing Nothing A scientist and engineer interested in consciousness, brains and technology, his work traverses the boundaries of neuroscience, philosophy, culture, radical politics and metaphysics He was raised in the US educated and married in Sweden, lived in New York Beyond Zero Kindle - and Minneapolis and now lives in Switzerland.



10 thoughts on “Beyond Zero and One: Machines, Psychedelics, and Consciousness

  1. Will Newman Will Newman says:

    A very interesting argument for the strong AI consciousness project which ties in a lot of seemingly disparate areas Intelligently discusses the necessity of LSD or psychedelics without the usual hippy or spiritual rhetoric.

  2. Peter (Pete) Mcloughlin Peter (Pete) Mcloughlin says:

    A book about AI, neuroscience, consciousness both biological and maybe machine and LSD the author suggests that if something is conscious then its consciousness can be altered LSD is one consciousness altering drug used to probe consciousness in humans The author suggests an electronic analog to LSD could be introduced to an AI as a diagnostic for AI consciousness A Turing acid test if you will It is a novel idea I have no clue if it will have legs.

  3. Antonin Tuynman Antonin Tuynman says:

    Beyond Zero and One is a very original and extraordinary book Andrew Smart starts from the premise that if we wish to create an artificial intelligence of at least the human level, it will need to be endowed with consciousness To test whether an AI is indeed conscious, Smart proposes a variant of the Turing test, which he has baptized the Turing acid test Smart is of the opinion that because psychedelic substances strongly change the conscious experience, we can use this notion to our advanta Beyond Zero and One is a very original and extraordinary book Andrew Smart starts from the premise that if we wish to create an artificial intelligence of at least the human level, it will need to be endowed with consciousness To test whether an AI is indeed conscious, Smart proposes a variant of the Turing test, which he has baptized the Turing acid test Smart is of the opinion that because psychedelic substances strongly change the conscious experience, we can use this notion to our advantage by giving an AI a digital equivalent of LSD The book shows us that there are mechanisms by which the normal flow of electrons in computer circuitry can be perturbed when hardware problems arise and when the voltage that usually represents the 0 or 1 gets stuck in between Most interestingly when such glitches occur, software safety protocols based on The Byzantine Generals Problem still fail.With Smart we make a journey through time from the inventor of binary calculation Leibniz to the implementation thereof in computer circuitry by Turing We dive deeply into the realm of the subjective experience from Plato to Dehaene and Searle But most essentially the book is an inquiry into the nature of consciousness and a refreshing counter current in the prevailing hype that consciousness will one day be computed As Smart lucidly shows in fact not even computers really compute , although he does not exclude that consciousness might emerge in computers Not only is virtual LSD proposed as a technique to test for the presence of consciousness in machines, Smart also argues that it may take away the edge of the potential AI threat.A visionary exploration beyond zero and one, which I genuinely enjoyed and wholeheartedly recommend

  4. Brian Clegg Brian Clegg says:

    This is an unusual book, in a small pocket sized format that reminds me of the old science fiction doubles pocket books Apart from their small size, these books had a special trick up their sleeve, because when you flipped them over, the back was a cover for a different book each copy held two books, starting from opposite ends Beyond Zero and One may be a single title, but it too has very different topics that Andrew Smart wants to convince us go naturally together artificial intelligence This is an unusual book, in a small pocket sized format that reminds me of the old science fiction doubles pocket books Apart from their small size, these books had a special trick up their sleeve, because when you flipped them over, the back was a cover for a different book each copy held two books, starting from opposite ends Beyond Zero and One may be a single title, but it too has very different topics that Andrew Smart wants to convince us go naturally together artificial intelligence and the drug LSD.As we go, in a rather rambling fashion, in the first topic, Smart takes us through the nature of artificial intelligence, how likely it is that computers could become truly intelligent and or conscious and explores a little of the nature of consciousness himself As far as the second goes, we get a really interesting description of his one and only LSD trip, details of its chemical structure and possible method of the drug s operation, its history and how it has been used However, these two parts to the book are not structurally separate, but interwoven.So what s going on here Why are these two apparently unconnected things together Because Smart believes that an LCD experience is not a true hallucination, but rather an opening up of the subjective side of our perception He thinks that the ability to have this kind of altered perception is a fundamental aspect of consciousness I think his arguments are not all very clear , and as such, if we could give LSD to a supposed AI he doesn t propose a mechanism for doing this, as there would be much point simply dripping the chemical substance into it , then it would give us great insights into the nature of consciousness and intelligence Quite why, I m not really sure.Each of the two significant parts of the book has some genuinely interesting bits I didn t know much about LCD, and that aspect is highly informative, while some of the sections on intelligent computers are genuinely fascinating When, for example, Smart counters the assurance of the likes of Ray Kurzweil that true AI is just around the corner and will be stable and problem free, Smart points out the dangers of Byzantine faults, which stress error correction mechanisms to the point of collapse and could ensure that any computer capable of intelligence was unable to run without failure.The problem with the book is that it is difficult to uncover any good reason for putting the two topics together Smart makes arguments from the Kantian idea that we can t perceive reality, just a subjective model of it This is clearly true to a degree For example, what we see as our visual field, looking out on the world, is assembled from a set of inputs of things like shapes and shades it s not a camera view, which is why optical illusions occur and we don t notice saccades where our eyes jerk around However Smart has a tendency to go too far with this to asserting that perceptions are no different from hallucinations, as our waking experience is a construct of the brain.The trouble with this approach is that we have far too good an agreement over how we interpret what we perceive for it to be subjective enough to draw the parallels that Smart makes For example, he says that colour does not exist outside our brains saying the redness of the apple is entirely constructed in your brain In reality it s only partly constructed in the brain The colour of an object is a response to the energy of photons it emits in the case of this apple, they are in the range of the spectrum identified as red The fact that the red light is farintense on a sunny beach than on your desk on a rainy day, which Smart uses to suggest that colour is purely subjective, is about number of photons, not photon energy And that is not subjective.In making the steps he has to take to link his topics, Smart goes too far in attempting to show that all perception is subjective We all, after all, agree that what perceive as a cliff is a cliff It s not subjective, and anyone who argues otherwise is welcome to walk off it to prove otherwise There are also rather too many assumptions made At one point, for instance, Smart claims that a strong AI would have to be conscious but he doesn t justify this in the face of, for instance, the evidence that the vast majority of brain activity is unconscious.I was also a little worried that someone writing a book with computing at its heart could make as fundamental an error as to say that the IBM Watson computer has 80 teraflops of memory and 15 terabytes of RAM No RAM is memory, and teraflops is a measure of the number of floating point operations the computer can make in a second it has nothing to do with memory.Despite the flaws in the book, there s much to get you thinking about the nature of artificial intelligence and consciousness plus that second topic of LSD, which is also eye opening if you have no experience of the culture that might use it Beyond Zero and One is a thought provoking book it s just that a fair amount of the time, the thoughts provoked may not be in agreement with those the author wants to promote

  5. Trace Reddell Trace Reddell says:

    While the premise was intriguing enough to get me to pick up the book and recommendations from Douglas Rushkoff and Erik Davis on the back jacket were enough to get me to buy it this was a pretty worthless reading experience That s a shame, because as a thought experiment, it is indeed fascinating to consider that if some kind of artificial intelligence achieves consciousness, then in what ways might we alter and expand that consciousness through a psychedelic experience As Smart is smar While the premise was intriguing enough to get me to pick up the book and recommendations from Douglas Rushkoff and Erik Davis on the back jacket were enough to get me to buy it this was a pretty worthless reading experience That s a shame, because as a thought experiment, it is indeed fascinating to consider that if some kind of artificial intelligence achieves consciousness, then in what ways might we alter and expand that consciousness through a psychedelic experience As Smart is smart enough to point out, a lot of this hinges on our ideas about consciousness in the first place, but ultimately not knowing what consciousness is But all the what if s are too big and never addressed in a clear way in this jumble of a circuitous book that simply forestalls real engagement with its central investigation assertion 9 10s of the book are given over to background information that doesn t adequately inform the thought experiment.There are too many problems with this book for me to spend much time addressing them, so I ll just mention two that seem to me part of a larger trend and indeed systemic inadequacies emerging at the intersection of computer science, neuroscience, and psychedelic research 1 the exclusion of the humanities in such research Though Smart ends up saying, This book is philosophical, he consistently dismisses philosophical inquiry, particularly in university settings These manifest as snide dismissals of PhD defenses, page count in other books, and even the rigor of citational practice Butdeeply, the arts and literature and music all have tremendous insights to offer the fields of research outlined above, and they will haveto teach us about what AI might or might not do, and will be better equipped measures of any developing artificial consciousness and artificial empathy.2 the psychedelic experience is being over simplified and oversold as a consistent gateway to positive, transformative change If we look at how it s been addressed and documented in history, literature, music, cinema, and art, psychedelics are a mixed bag and highly unreliable Sometimes, psychedelic experience is simply mundane At other times, it is the equivalent of turning up the sensory special effects It has apparently amplified egomania as much as shattered it cf Leary And at times, it can be harrowing This is not simply a question of anti psychedelic propaganda People have bad trips Psychedelics unlock underlying neurological and mental problems Smart wants to propose that giving a machine consciousness a psychedelic experience or its equivalent would be a way to make sure that AI are empathic and won t just kill off all humans and other biological lifeforms That conclusion isn t at all warranted, and the question I kept wanting to ask is, what if our AI gets a hold of the equivalent of Woodstock s infamous brown acid Adequate consideration of how a virtual model of psychedelic compounds would work in a computing environment is completely sidestepped This makes the whole book feel like a little meaningless game with no real consequences Except one, included in a footnote Andrew Smart is pitching for research funds after having failed to entice the Future of Life Institute to fund this line of inquiry No wonder, if this book is any indication, because it s a poorly designed project that amounts to let s dose the AI and see what happens.SO, I would recommend avoiding this book Maybe take a look at Nicolas Langlitz s Neuropsychedelia, Richard Doyle s Darwin s Pharmacy, or William Richard s Sacred Knowledge None of these deal with the overlap of psychedelics and AI, but they do provide a deeper look at how psychedelic research must involve the humanities and liberal arts I suggest that we must incorporate that before going off on hare brained thought experiments about AI and psychedelics, which like most theoretical claims for AI and machine consciousness are overblown fantasies with little connection to present day reality

  6. Cypress Butane Cypress Butane says:

    Kant, A.I., V.R., L.S.D Immanuel Kant synthetic conscious experience For me this is where LSD enters the picture It turns out that human consciousness is likely itself a form of hallucination As I have said, it is a very useful hallucination, but a hallucination nonetheless LSD and psychedelics may help reveal our normal everyday experience for the hallucination that it is This insight has been argued about for centuries in philosophy in various forms Immanuel Kant may have been Kant, A.I., V.R., L.S.D Immanuel Kant synthetic conscious experience For me this is where LSD enters the picture It turns out that human consciousness is likely itself a form of hallucination As I have said, it is a very useful hallucination, but a hallucination nonetheless LSD and psychedelics may help reveal our normal everyday experience for the hallucination that it is This insight has been argued about for centuries in philosophy in various forms Immanuel Kant may have been first to articulate it in modern form when he called our perception of the world synthetic The fundamental idea is that we do not have direct knowledge of the external world This idea will be repeated often in this book, and you will have to get used to it We only have knowledge of our brain s creation of that world for us In other words, what we see, hear, and subsequently think are like movies that our brain plays for us after the fact These movies are based on perceptions that come into our senses from the external world, but they fictions of our brain s creation In fact, you might put the disclaimer based on a true story in front of each experience you have I do not wish to are still imply that I believe in the homunculus argument what philosopher Daniel Dennett describes as the Cartesian Theater the hypothetical place in the mind where the self becomes aware of the world I only wish to employ the metaphor to illustrate the idea that there is no direct relationship between the external world and your perception of it.There is no such tiny Cartesian Theater in the brain conscious experience is generated by a vastly complex, distributed network that synchronizes and adjusts its activity by the millisecond As far as we can tell, certain patterns of activity in this distributed network give rise to conscious experience But fundamentally, this network s activity is self contained and the feeling of a unified flow of consciousness you have is not just from the processing of sensory information The experience you have right now is a unique creation of your brain that has transformed data from your body into something closer to a hallucination To break down this seemingly obvious point that we will deal with very often in this book and that I myself struggle to experience is real, but the contents of this experience exist only in your brain Some philosophers call this irreducible subjectivity, which means that no totally objective theory of human experience may be possible The contents of your experience are not representations of the world, but your experience is part of the world By altering this process with molecules like psilocybin or lsd we can become aware of different aspects of our perceptions By perturbing consciousness and observing the consequences, we can gain insight into it s normal functioning This is again not to say that consciousness is not real there can be no doubt that I am conscious as I write this srntence However, it is the relationship between consciousness and the external world that ismysterious than one might assume Beyond Zero and One, intro chapter A.I TheoristsRay KurzweilDaniel DennettRoger PenroseMiguel NicolelisLeonid PerlovskyRiccardo ManzottiStanilas

  7. Eric Stodolnik Eric Stodolnik says:

    Cool book with a cool concept Follows in the tradition of Timothy Leary s late in life work of marrying the world of psychedelic research with the world of technology and contemplating how the two seemingly disparate areas of study can actually be veins of the same post transhuman landscape that is seemingly just on the horizon of human endeavors Although his work comes off as much less preachy and muchanalytical than Leary ever was when gracing these topic And while that can come acros Cool book with a cool concept Follows in the tradition of Timothy Leary s late in life work of marrying the world of psychedelic research with the world of technology and contemplating how the two seemingly disparate areas of study can actually be veins of the same post transhuman landscape that is seemingly just on the horizon of human endeavors Although his work comes off as much less preachy and muchanalytical than Leary ever was when gracing these topic And while that can come across as less exciting and much less passionate of a voice, it is, on the other hand, muchaccessible and muchingestible to the average reader, and the uninitiated the readers who might just pick up the book because they words artificial intelligence and neural network piques their interest over the letters LSD.The only reason I gave this book a 4 star rating over a 5 star rating is because at times this analytical, clinical, dry standpoint from which he tackles these subjects can at times make fore analytical, clinical, dry reading Although I did find every chapter of this book very interesting and very compelling And even though I am pretty well verses on both topics of artificial intelligence and technology at least as far as a layperson goes as well as LSD and the psychedelic experience in general much less of a layperson and muchof an expert on this subject than the former I found myself both learning new thing I didn t know on the tech side of this book, as well as considering some compelling concepts I hadn t otherwise contemplated on the psychonautical side of the book Overall, a very enjoyable non fiction interlude in my fiction after fiction after fiction after fiction reading schedule of the past 2 years

  8. Alex Alex says:

    This was a nice counterpoint to the excesses of contemporary AI hype While a bit repetitive at times, it clearly illustrated some biological constraints on things like attempts to simulate a human brain, which people like Bostrom and Hanson appear to take as an inevitability It was also better researched in terms of how computers actually work than something like Bostrom s book, which was fairly clueless in that regard Not perfect, but certainly thought provoking and a worthwhile read.

  9. Antonio Vena Antonio Vena says:

    Una bellissima lettura per chi ama e o interessat alle seguenti parole chiave coscienza, intelligenza artificiale, LSD, superintelligenza.Dico perch l autore riesce a combinare tutto in una visione originale e interessantissima

  10. Ilteris Ilteris says:

    I like this book Andrew Smart delves into questions of difference between consciousness, intelligence and AI and relationship between these and doing this using example of psychedelics in a novel way.

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