Die Philosophie des Als Ob PDF ´ des Als PDF


  • Paperback
  • 420 pages
  • Die Philosophie des Als Ob
  • Hans Vaihinger
  • English
  • 14 April 2014
  • 9781578988259

6 thoughts on “Die Philosophie des Als Ob

  1. Elenabot Elenabot says:

    Vaihinger provides here I think the clearest exposition of the thread that runs from the medieval nominalists through Hume Kant and ultimately Nietzsche He shows how each of these thinkers contributes to the emergence of the philosophy of as if which is a mode of philosophizing that seeks to face suarely the epistemic implications that emerge from the pervasiveness of illusion in human life In this view the fullest lucidity we can have access to as embodied existents is the lucidity to be found when we peer through the pervasive veneer of illusion that shrouds our lives and gain thereby a liberating detachment from these by seeing them for the first time for what they really are ie fictional constructs He argues via a comparative historical analysis that is focused through the prism of his own synoptic interpretation that these thinkers taken together show us how knowledge itself is best understood as an edifice of fictional constructs built atop the optical illusions and aesthetic anthropomorpshisms as Nietzsche called them in Beyond Good and Evil created by our organismic embodiment in the world In this view the clearest view we can attain of the real is the negative self reflexive view afforded us when we see our organismic illusions for what they are Reading back from Nietzsche Vaihinger casts a new light on the true epistemic function for organismic existents of the laws of nature of causality of the lines points and of axioms of the mathematician of the independent substances inevitably postulated by the logician and of the very principle of parsimony posited by Occam as the regulative principle of science In a way he shows how Nietzsche following Kant's re interpretation of the foundational concepts of ontology in terms of the perspective of the human subject seriously takes into account the epistemic implications of the purely organismic grounding of knowledge than do most optimistic positivistically inclined evolutionary epistemologists namely the fact that knowledge serves survival and organismic thriving not the exigencies of objective truth Knowledge is the means whereby we construct a human cognizable systematizable world atop the intractable otherness of the real world The philosophy as if suspends belief in the foundational faith of any rational epistemology namely the belief that the pattern of the mind is adeuate to grasp the pattern of the world that the human part can grasp the form of the universal whole Once you suspend this foundational act of faith and take a very clear look at the nature of the knowledge situation as well as the human drives that power it Vaihinger persuasively argues the philosophy of as if is what is left to our honest perusal Among many other things he shows that in order to rightly understand any of these thinkers we must understand them as tributaries that flow into and contribute to the unfolding of this larger pattern of philosophizing This he argues persuasively is especially true in the case of Kant and Nietzsche neither of which you can understand unless you place them in relation to each other on this larger map of philosophical positions that converge around the philosophy of as if which he also calls fictionalism or the view that whatever else our knowledge constructs may happen to be what we can most surely say about them from the vantage point which we in fact occupy is that they are postulates grounded solely in our organismic striving to progressively extend the pattern set by our organismic reuirements by re creating the world in a human form Following Nietzsche Vaihinger ruefully notes that we do not seek to know the world in itself; this is the foremost illusion of pre critical epistemologies Rather we seek to know a world fully colonized by our own human reflection a world rendered a home for the human spirit a world that is no longer an inscrutable alien other Ultimately all postulates that ground and direct the process of knowledge acuisition spring from organismic values from our striving to humanize the world and bring it into a humanly graspable and relatable form I cannot help but admire the way that he shows that Nietzsche takes up the Kantian critiue of the instrument of all knowing reason only to radicalize it by showing that all our ontology which is used among other things to ground our various disciplines including those of science is really a subset of aesthetics and axiology It takes guts to take the critiue of knowledge to such terrifying lengths One wonders how sustainable this stance is in practice Animal faith is a welcome anesthetizing antidote to such lucidity; it carries us ever on with the hope that through the mirage of the construct we're establishing a real substantive relation to the world in itself Ultimately this thread in philosophy redefines wisdom as the insight born of our progressive detachment from our most nourishing illusions We must not bank on finding a basis for any positive theoretical postulates once the process has run its course for precisely the reasons that Kant offered in his first Critiue In this Vaihinger's method seems to be a philosophical adaptation of the spiritual via negativa all we can say is what the real is not It is not precisely everything that we are This is because we cannot assume that we are in any way the measure of all things As Vaihinger concludes though one is still left with the uestion of how it is precisely that we stand in relation to the world All depends on making the perhaps pre theoretical decision as to whether we find the world as essentially being friend or foe to our human strivings for our progressive organismic realization Vaihinger's is an important history to tell because I find this particular side of our philosophical tradition is not often enough appreciated in the neo positivist and happy go lucky because unreflective intellectual climate of today His is a sobering chilling look but one that brings the beauty of clarity And it's not just a re telling of one under remembered side of the history of philosophy which holds a mere theoretical interest I think the view of human life that emerges here from this closer look at all our illusions about knowledge is deeply poignant and transformative if you let it sink in Perhaps if you expunge all faith and wishful thinking from epistemology something like Vainhiger's view is what is left


  2. Colm Gillis Colm Gillis says:

    A comprehensive meticulous and intellectually engaging master piece which at the same time tended to take its own argument to extremes and also didnt provide within itself a basis for self criticism The title of the work refers to the use of fictions in all fields of study For example; how do we calculate the area of a circle? We treat it 'as if' it can be made up of a number of lines each of length r Vaihinger gives an in depth history of such concepts primarily from science and philosophy Kant whose school Vaihinger belonged to is given particular attention It really was impressive how the author continually found textual material to support his argument Where the book erred was treating the core insight of the book into an instrument for denying all reality This tendency became painfully obvious when subjects other than science were being discussed Vaihinger seemed to deny any objective reality and became mired in a rationalistic error Nonetheless as a whole the work is towering and well worth a read


  3. Doctor Moss Doctor Moss says:

    The Philosophy of As If is Vaihinger's major work and probably has primarily historical importance as part of the 19th century rejection of rationalism and as a precursor to logical positivism later in the 20th centuryVaihinger like other positivists takes his metaphysical cue from empiricist theories of knowledge claiming that our access to reality is limited to sensations and then claims that everything beyond that including scientific theories ethical claims and religion is built upon frameworks provided by fictions These fictions include both what are fairly explicit fictions like the social contract but also maybe most interestingly all general concepts including fundamental concepts like space time and causality ethical concepts like good and evil and the very language of everyday life the general terms for everyday objects like table chair bird mammal Unlike nominalists Vaihinger coming in the wake of Darwin and other evolutionary thinking focuses eually on the usefulness of these fictions as much as on their fictional status Although he uses such terms as error and mistake in describing our reliance on such concepts he distinguishes those errors as the attempts to describe reality via the concepts rather than use them to successfully cope manipulate and predict Fictions are for him valuable or less valuable in so far as they provide this ability to cope with the world around us Their value is proven over time as they aid or fail to aid us in our interactions with the world and each other much as biological traits prove or less adaptiveLike other German philosophers of the 19th century this book was originally written thirty years before its first publication in 1911 Vaihinger takes pains both to tie his thought to and distinguish it from Kant Like Kant he adopts a critical position he calls his theory critical positivism denying knowledge of a reality of things in themselves and supposing our knowledge of what we call objective reality to be built upon a framework provided by ourselves Unlike Kant though he claims no a priori status for that fundamental framework rejecting Kant's rationalism The justification for those concepts and the basis for their change over time lies in their pragmatic value although he criticizes the pragmatists themselves for taking pragmatic criteria to provide criteria for truthI think what Vaihinger is attempting really is to displace a conception of mind as primarily a knower to mind as a biological function whereas even for Kant knowledge is an activity whose end is purely its own knowledge for Vaihinger is in service to the reuirements of a biological organism analogous to digestion He saysJust as the physical organism that breaks up the matter which it receives mixes it with its own juices and so thus makes it suitable for assimilation so the psyche envelopes the thing perceived with categories which it has developed out of itself p 2There is something intriguing and even right in this way of naturalizing human thought placing it in the context of the activity of a biological organism rather than a creature with privileged access to an independent reality That conception is lacking I think in the later development of positivism particularly logical positivism which while deflating the scope of metaphysics and philosophy in general puts little or nothing in its place other than empirical science religion and ethics become strictly meaningless rather than as for Vaihinger the human strivings for means of coping with what life presents usAll in all I can't say that this is one of the must read books in the history of philosophy Its value is mainly as an interesting episode in the rejection of rationalism and the development of pragmatism and positivism


  4. Ali Al-ismail Ali Al-ismail says:

    أعتقد اسم أنسب للكتاب هو 'As if in Philosophy'نقطة قوة الكتاب هي تحليله لأعمال الفلاسفة السابقين باستخدام مفهوم الـfiction تحليله يوضح كيف أن إدراك أن بعض المفاهيم هي خيالية وضعت لمساعدة الوعي يختصر الكثير من الجهد ويتخلص من أسئلة تبدو لوهلة أولى وكأنها معضلاتالجزء اللي كان بيكون مثير للاهتمام أكثر، بالنسبة لي على الأقل، هو كيف هذا المفهوم يلعب دور في الرياضيات الكاتب يحاول بكل جهده أنه يبين تناقضات غير موجودة، أو تم التخلص منها منذ زمن، في المعرفة الرياضية معظم نقاشه عن الرياضيات كان متعلق بالتفاضل والتكامل كل الصعوبات الذي تكلم عنها تم التخلص منها عبر مفهوم الـlimit بس يبدو أن الكاتب غير مطلع عليهباقي نقاشه عن الرياضيات ناتج عن خلطه بين الأدوات اللي نستخدمها لفهم المفهوم الرياضي، وبين الأسس اللي المفهوم نفسه مبني عليها


  5. Aveugle Vogel Aveugle Vogel says:

    see the horse


  6. Vlad Popescu Vlad Popescu says:

    O idee al cărei neadevăr teoretic sau incorectitudine iar prin aceasta falsitatea sunt admise nu este din acest motiv practic fără valoare şi inutilă; căci o asemenea idee în pofida nulităţii ei teoretice poate să aibă o mare însemnătate practică Cea mai buna analiza filosofica a autocontrolului si a irealitatii imediate


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Die Philosophie des Als Ob[PDF / Epub] ★ Die Philosophie des Als Ob ✪ Hans Vaihinger – Natus-physiotherapy.co.uk 2009 reprint of 1925 edition This is an important book of one idea but that idea is a very important one for the social scientist According to the author many thought processes and thought constructs reprint des Als PDF ✓ of edition This is an important book of one idea but that idea is a very important one for the social scientist According to the author many thought processes and thought constructs appear to be consciously false assumptions which either contradict reality or are even contradictory in themselves but which are intentionally thus Die Philosophie Kindle - formed in order to overcome difficulties of thought by this artificial deviation and reach the goal of thought by roundabout ways and by paths These artificial thought constructs are called 'Scientific Fictions' and distinguished as conscious creations by their 'as if' character Vaihinger's work is an important early contribution to the human tendency towards self deception.