De finibus bonorum et malorum Epub ì De finibus

De finibus bonorum et malorum ➶ [Reading] ➸ De finibus bonorum et malorum By Marcus Tullius Cicero ➫ – Natus-physiotherapy.co.uk De finibus bonorum et malorum On the ends of good and evil is a philosophical work by the Roman orator politician and philosopher Marcus Tullius Cicero It consists of five books in which Cicero explai De finibus bonorum et malorum On the bonorum et eBook ✓ ends of good and evil is a philosophical work by the Roman orator politician and philosopher Marcus Tullius Cicero It consists of five books in which Cicero explains the philosophical views of Epicureanism Stoicism and the Platonism of Antiochus of Ascalon The book was developed in the summer of the year BC within about one and a half months Together with the Tusculanae uaestiones written shortly afterwards De finibus is the most extensive philosophical work of Cicero wiki.


10 thoughts on “De finibus bonorum et malorum

  1. Jean Jean says:

    I recently read the book “Friends Divided” by Gordon S Wood In the book Wood made a point that Marcus Tullius Cicero 106 BCE 43 BCE was a favorite of both John Adams 1735 1826 and Thomas Jefferson 1743 1826 and they uoted Cicero freuently I have always enjoyed reading about Cicero but I suddenly realized I have never read any of his books Audible had this audiobook by Cicero written toward the end of his life while he was in exile at his countryside estate Apparently he did a great deal of writing during this periodIn this book Cicero discusses the philosophical views of Epicureanism and Stoicism The book was written in 45 BCE I wish that I had the skill to read this in Latin This book was translated to English by Harris Rackham I am always in awe of reading a book written so long ago and yet it is valid today I found the method Cicero used in writing extremely helpful in understanding his debates The way he had different friends and himself debate back and forth the various points of each philosophy made me feel I was sitting with him and his friends in a patio drinking teawine It was such a delight to have Cicero at times include me in the conversation This is how I spent my Christmas Day sitting in a garden with Cicero discussing philosophy Oh it was such a pleasant day I read this as an audiobook downloaded from Audible The book is just over nine hours Derek LePage does a good job narrating the book


  2. Shyam Shyam says:

    What could be important to the reader than working out for herself which is the right way to live? —Julia Anna IntroductionIn short a life that contains in addition to virtue a plentiful supply of the other things that are in accordance with nature is not worth seeking but worth adopting than a life consisting of virtue alone 420The way of life they commended was one spent in uiet contemplation and study This is the most god like of lives and so most worthy of the wise person 511Lacking the nobler delights of intellectual pursuit they seek out any kind of company or social gathering instead 556 A good text for both information and criticism of ancient Epicurean and Stoic thought I don't like spending time learning the ins and outs of particular philosophies but prefer to spend my time developing my own through experience and time and by cherry picking the 'best' aspects from all philosophies; I would echo Montaigne Let him make him sift every thing and lodge nothing in his brain on authority merely and on trust; let not Aristotle's principles be his principles any than those of the Stoics or Epicureans; let this diversity of opinions be put before him he will choose if he can; if not Having said that there are many good things to be plucked from this work never mind the overview and criticism of the aforementioned philosophies Whatever the intent behind the reading time spent with this work is time well spent 'However evening is drawing in and I must return home Enough then for now I hope we shall often return to these subjects’ ‘Indeed we shall’ said Cato ‘There is no finer pursuit’ For the ancients if an ethical theory can provide no guidance as to how we can incorporate it into our ethical reflection then it is not a serious ethical theory IntroductionThe greater the study the greater the reward If wisdom can be attained one should not just acuire it but enjoy it to the full 12There is no need to waste my time picking a fight with those who prefer to read Greek texts provided only that they do read them and do not just pretend to 110The root cause of life’s troubles is ignorance of what is good and bad 143Desire is insatiable it destroys not only individuals but whole families; often it can even bring an entire nation to its knees It is from desire that enmity discord dissension sedition and war is born Desire not only swaggers around on the outside and hurls itself blindly at others even when desires are shut up inside the heart they uarrel and fight amongst themselves A life of great bitterness is the inevitable result So it is only the wise person by pruning back all foolishness and error who can live without misery and fear happy with nature’s own limits 143 44Very many people unable to hold fast to their own decisions become defeated and debilitated by whatever spectre of pleasure comes their way So they put themselves at the mercy of their appetites and fail to force the conseuences; and thus for the sake of some slight and non necessary pleasure—which might have been obtained in a different way or even neglected altogether without any ensuing pain—they incur serious illness financial loss A broken reputation and often even legal and judicial punishment 147One who constantly entertains plans and projects that compete amongst themselves and pull in different directions can know nothing of peace or tranuility 158Moreover foolish people are forgetful of past successes and fail to enjoy present ones They simply await success in the future but because that is necessarily uncertain they are consumed with anxiety and fear they are especially tormented when they realise too late the tthey pursued wealth or power or possessions or honour to no avail and have failed to obtain any of the pleasures whose prospect drove them to endure a variety of great suffering 160Epicurus represents the wise person who is always happy as one who sets desire within limits; is heedless of death; has knowledge of the truth about the immortal gods and fears nothing; and will not hesitate to leave life behind if that is best Euipped with these principles the wise are in a constant state of pleasure since there is no time in which they do not have pleasure than pain They recall the past with affection; are in full possession of the present moment and appreciate how great are it’s delights; have hope for the future but do not rely on it—they are enjoying the present 162But he failed to see the most obvious conseuence He says that he is not interested in defining his terms; but without this it can often be impossible for the disputants to reach agreement on what it is they are discussing Consider the very topic we are debating now We are enuiring into the highest good But can we really understand what sort of thing this is unless we have sounded each other out on what we mean by “highest” and what indeed we mean by the term “good” itself when we speak of the highest good? 24’Then tell me’ I said ‘in the case of one who is thirsty is drinking a pleasure?’ ‘Who could deny it?’ ‘Is it the same pleasure as having a uenched thirst?’ ’No it is uite a different kind A uenched thirst is a “static” pleasure whereas the pleasure of having one’s thirst uenches is “kinetic”’ 29He has also somehow won over the group that possesses the lowest authority but the greatest power namely the general public 244You dress up just for show but the truth is hidden within 277Once happiness is achieved it is as permanent as the wisdom that brings it about There is no need to wait until the end of our days as Herodotus tells us that Solon warned Croesus to do 287I take seriously Socrates’ maxim that the best seasoning for one’s good is hunger and the best flavouring for one’s drink is thirst 290If on the other hand his life had been awash with pleasure but morally disreputable then he would have been unhappy 293Your maxim “Short if it is severe; light if it is long” makes a nice jingle But virtue high mindedness courage and endurance are the real remedies for the alleviation of pain 295The entire notion wishing to be commemorated at feasts after one’s death is alien to persons of learning I will say just this it is appropriate for you to celebrate Epicurus’ birthday than it was for him too stipulate its celebration in his will 2103There is the familiar saying “A task completed is a pleasant one” Euripides puts it well “Sweet is the memory of labours past” —Andromeda lost 2105I turn to your contention that the pleasures and pains of the mind are greater than those of the body since the mind can range over past present and future while the body is only aware of the present moment 2108The final aim then is to live consistently and harmoniously with nature This being so all who are wise necessarily live happy perfect and blessed lives with no impediment or obstacle lacking nothing 326The four emotional disurbances are sorrow fear lust and what the Stoics call hêdonê a term applicable to body as well as mind I prefer to speak of “elation” meaning the sensual delight of the exultant mind 335You say the the audience will be inspired to believe so A Stoic inspire anyone? More likely to dampen the ardour of the keenest student 47 a noble and honourable occupation for our hours of leisure 412Thus say that someone who has lived pleasantly for ten years has an eually pleasant month of life added on That is a good thing—the month’s additional pleasure carries some weight None the less the life would still have been a happy one regardless of the addition 430Virtue after all is the perfection of reason 435 seduced by the glorious grandeur of language 460Some vices are worse than others 467Ignorance of the supreme good however is necessarily euivalent to ignorance of how to plan one’s life And this may take one so far off course that one loses sight of any haven to provide shelter Once however we understand the highest ends once we know what the ultimate good and evil is then we have a path through life a model of all our duties to which each of our actions can thereby be referred 515Now a desire to know anything nor matter of what sort is simply a mark of inuisitiveness But one who is led to a desire for knowledge by the contemplation of higher things should be considered the very finest example of a human being 549


  3. Suze Fields Suze Fields says:

    Read it in Hungarian not in Latin Though there were several parts where I didn't agree with Cicero or that I found his arguing a little bit flawed at least in the Hungarian translation in some parts he seems to twist the words of Epicurus all in all I found it uite enjoyable and interesting Wish it were complete


  4. Benjamin Gaiser Benjamin Gaiser says:

    In this book Cicero develops the ideas of the three prevailing philosophical ideas of his time He gives several accounts for and against them and as such it is a good introductionary read into ancient philosophy Another side topic is the fact that Cicero establishes that one need not to philosophize in a traditional language but that philosophy should be adaptable to everybody's mother tongue


  5. Thomas Rivers Thomas Rivers says:

    'Now it was a mistake to make virtue consist in an act of choice for this implies that the very thing that is the ultimate Good itself seeks to get something else' TullyPeerless rhetoric noble thinking We expect nothing less from him


  6. rogue rogue says:

    I will have to read this a dozen times before I can say anything about it


  7. William Prueter William Prueter says:

    Go to prueterorg Click on my Latin page Click on books read Click on Marcus Tullius Cicero Scrool down to 545


  8. Andrew Fairweather Andrew Fairweather says:

    Why does Cicero always ultimately leave me cold? I don't fervently disagree with much I've read by him yet I feel like I'm always waiting for the passage which will convince me of his reputed brilliance As for this particular work 'On Ends' is a dialogue between the convinced Epicurian Toruatus and Cicreo followed by another dialogue with the Stoic Cato The style of disputation is very different in both debates much of this has to do with the premise of Epicurianism and Stoicism and its relation to Cicero's own point of view which greatly favors the Stoic's devotion to virtueI have a lot of sympathy with Cicero's take down of Epicurianism Indeed I think it can be reasonably figured that we live in a largely Epicurian world at the moment due to out location of the Good Life in largely sensual pleasures His critiue of Epicurus' lack of distinction when using the term pleasure Epicurus says that the absence of pain is a definite static pleasure as opposed to moving pleasure which is sought is spot on and it is fair play to him that he makes a point to reserve his criticism for Epicurus the thinker not the man By far the hedonist's worst offense is his locating the center of pleasure and pain in the sensations of the body which Cicero argues dulls the fruits of reason since reason can only be a means to an end of sensual pleasure Epicurus does not portray a social human being—insofar as Cicero insists on the social character of humanity I am with him all the way After all without this crucial foundation both Judgement and Justice are impossible—The fact is that when Epicurus says that the verdict of the senses themselves decides pleasure to be good and pain evil he assigns authority to the senses than the law allows to us when we sit as judges in private suits We cannot decide any issue not within our jurisdiction; and there is not really any point in the proviso which judges are fond of adding to their verdicts ‘if it be a matter within my jurisdiction’ for if it was not within their jurisdiction the verdict is eually invalid with the proviso omitted What does come under the verdict of the senses? Sweetness sourness smoothness roughness proximity distance; whether an object is stationary or moving suare or roundThe Epicurian stance is essentially anti public Plato's Myth of Gyges kept turning in my head Rather than outright promote the idea that ethics are what we do when no one is looking something which Cicero would undoubtedly concur Cicero portrays the most malignant personality as one that would practice public virtue for the satisfaction of their own selfish endsAgain if modesty self control chastity if in a word Temperance is to depend for its sanction on the fear of punishment or of disgrace and not to maintain itself by its own intrinsic sacredness what form of adultery vice or lust will not break loose and run riot when it is assured of concealment impunity or indulgenceHere Epicurianism is kind like the ethical consumerism we have today which tells us that the buy responsibly sourced products is out ticket out of environmental catastrophe or the proper way to support political causes no the outrageous excesses of consumerism itself can't possibly be responsible for the destruction of the planet Of course the Epicurian would argue that saving the planet is in the subject's own interest a rather flat statement if you ask me I think we should all be uite aware of where enlightened selfishness gets us Being essentially anti public I'm not sure you could trust an Epicurian to come up with the massive social organization necessary to properly tackle problems that are rightly political Instead for the Epicurian life is that of the gambler's a game of chance and fate will be what it will be—For the things that produce pleasure are not in the Wise Man’s control; since happiness does not consist in wisdom itself but in the means to pleasure which wisdom can procure But all the apparatus of pleasure is external and what is external must depend on chance Anyway what follows is a discussion with Cato in Lucullus' country home about Stoicism It seems like Cicero agrees with Cato by and large but feels it is not subtle enough to account for the emotional complexity of human beings Again no disagreements from me—yet for this reader long passages which concerned themselves about the differences between the Peripatetic and the Stoic school of thought left me yawning in a big way I just don't have the reuisite background to appreciate it all I am fully willing to admit and I had to close up shop early before Cicero got to talking about the Academy I don't normally review books I didn't finish but hey if there's anything I learned from Cicero here it's that you ought to have your principles but don't get to worked up over them eh? Geez I wish I enjoyed this a little though I think the Catiline orations are probably my next move Orations—that's probably the good stuff


  9. James Miller James Miller says:

    Reviewing Cicero is difficult he wrote in genres he partially created and uite unlike modern philosophy but the translation can be commented on The footnotes are very good for not just clarifying details of the common biographical references but drawing attention to the key point of argumentsThe common thread is of course the nature of the good and happy life and arguments are presented in various ways and with varying success Similarly to Platonic dialogues we are not offered a worked solution but issues and problems and encouraged to judge ourselves explaining some very weak argument in places and some uestionable bald assertions


  10. Zachary Rudolph Zachary Rudolph says:

    “For nothing in life is worth investigating than philosophy in general and the uestion raised in this work in particular what is the end what is the ultimate and final goal to which all our deliberations on living well and acting rightly should be directed?”


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